THE UNITED NATIONS
The UN Charter was signed in June 1945 and under the terms of this charter the UN officially came into existence on 24th October 1945. This date 24th October is celebrated as United Nations Day each year.
FLAG OF THE UN
At present there are 193 counties as UN members. They are
|Member state||Date of admission|
|Antigua and Barbuda||11-Nov-81|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||22-May-92|
|Central African Republic||20-Sep-60|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||20-Sep-60|
|Democratic People’s Republic of Korea||17-Sep-91|
|Republic of Korea||17-Sep-91|
|Lao People’s Democratic Republic||14-Dec-55|
|The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia||08-Apr-93|
|Republic of Moldova||02-Mar-92|
|Papua New Guinea||10-Oct-75|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||23-Sep-83|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||16-Sep-80|
|Sao Tome and Principe||16-Sep-75|
|Syrian Arab Republic||24-Oct-45|
|United Republic of Tanzania||14-Dec-61|
|Trinidad and Tobago||18-Sep-62|
|United Arab Emirates||09-Dec-71|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain||24-Oct-45|
|United States of America||24-Oct-45|
AIM of UN
· To save the succeeding generations from the scourage of war.
· To promote social progress and better standard of life all around the world.
· To maintain international peace and security.
· To develop friendly relations among countries.
· To cooperate in solving problem of economic, social, humanitarian and cultural nature.
PRINCIPLES (article 2)
· Sovereign equality of all its members
· All members shall settle their disputes by peaceful means so that international peace, security and justice are not endangered
The official languages of UN are: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
First Avenue, UN Plaza, New York City, N.Y. 10017, USA
There are 6 principal organs:
1. GENERAL ASSEMBLY = It is the main deliberative body which consists of the representatives of all the member states. Each member has 1 vote. It meets once in a year. At the start of each session of its meeting it elects its new president and 21 vice presidents. The General Assembly has right to discuss any matter within the area of the charter.
2. SECURITY COUNCIL = It is vested with the responsibility of the maintenance of international peace and security. It consists of 15 members, 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members elected for the period of 2 years by the two third majority of the General Assembly. Each member has 1 vote. Permanent members of the Security Council are China, France, Russia, UK and USA.
3. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC) = It is responsible for coordinating the functions of the UN with regard to International economic, social, cultural, educational and related matters. It consists of 54 member countries elected by the two third majority of the general assembly for a period of 3 years. Each member has 1 vote.
4. TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL = It consists of 5 permanent members of the Security Council. Those 5 countries are China, France, UK, USA and Russia. Since 1994 the council’s role has been under review.
5. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE = It is the principal judicial organ of the UN. It has a dual role of settling the disputes between the countries and giving advisory opinions. The expenses of the court are borne by the UN. The court elects its own President and Vice President for a period of 3 years. It consists of 15 judges, each of different nationality, elected for a period of 9 years, by the General Assembly and the Security Council. It has 2 official languages; French and English.
6. SECRETARIAT = At its head is the Secretary General appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the security council for a period of 5 years. The Secretary General acts as chief administrative officer in all meetings of the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council and Trusteeship Council.
UN SPECIALIZED AGENCIES
UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO)= It came into existence on 4th Nov. 1946. It has 187 members. Its main aim is to ensure peace and security in the world. Its head-quarter is in Paris, France.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO) = It came into existence on 7th April 1948. Its main aim is the attainment of the highest level of health by all the people of the world. Its head-quarter is Geneva, Switzerland.
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) = It came into existence on 27th Dec.1945. It has 184 members. Its main aim is to promote international monetary cooperation. Its head-quarter is in Washington (DC), USA.
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION (ILO) = It was established in the year 1919. It has 183 members. In 1969 this organization has won the Nobel Peace Prize. The International Labour Conference is the supreme deliberative organ of the ILO. Its head-quarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) = It came into existence on 29th July 1957. It has 145 member countries. It is the world’s center of cooperation in the nuclear field. Its head-quarter is in Vienna, Austria.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) = It came into existence on 16th October 1945. It sponsors the World Food Programme. Its head-quarter is in Rome, Italy.
INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (IBRD) = It is commonly known as the World Bank. It began its operation in June 1946. It has 188 countries as its members. Its main aim is to provide funds to its poorer member countries. The president is selected by the Bank’s Board of Executive Directors. Its head-quarter is in Washington (DC), USA.
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (IDA) = It was established in 1960. It is administered by the IBRD. It has 170 countries as its members. Its head-quarter is in Washington (DC), USA.
WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (WIPO) = It came into existence in April1970. It became a UN specialized agency in 1974. Its main aim is to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world. Its head-quarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION (UPU) = It was established on 1st July, 1875. It has 191 countries as its member. It was initially named as General Postal Union. In 1878, its name was changed to UPU. Its head-quarter is in Berne, Switzerland.
INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU) = In 1865 The International Telegraph Union was found in Paris and in 1906 the International radiotelegraph Union was found in Berlin. Both these organisations merged in year 1932 to form ITU. In 1947 it became a specialized agency of UN. Plenipotentiary Conference is the supreme organ of ITU. Its head-quarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION (ICAO) = It came into existence in year 1947. Its basic aim is to ensure the safe growth of aviation all around the world. Its head-quarter is at Montreal, Canada.
WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANISATION (WMO) = It started its operation in the year 1951. Its head-quarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION (IMO) = It came into existence in March 1948. Its head-quarter is at London, UK.
· UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION (UNIDO) = In the year 1985 it became the specialized agency of UN. It is the chief industrial advisor of all developing and under developed countries. Its head-quarter is at Vienna, Austria.
INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT (IFAD) = It began its operations in Dec.1977. Its head-quarter is at Rome, Italy.
INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION (IFC) = It was established in the year 1956. The membership of IFC is open for all the members of IBRD. It is an affiliate of the world-bank. Its head-quarter is at Washington (DC), USA.