The Indian Constitution is the main governing body of our country. ‘The Indian govt.’ is run according to the rules and principles contained in it. On the one side, the Constitution contains the Fundamental rights as well as the Fundamental duties for the Indian citizens and on the other side it also contains the ‘Directive Principles of State Policy’ for the govt. It was framed by the Constituent Assembly of India.
The Indian Constitution is the longest written Constitution in the world, with 448 articles and 12schedules. It is written in Hindi, in its original form. However, it is also translated into English for its official use. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is regarded as the father of the Indian Constitution.
In the year 1938, Sri Jawaharlal Nehru had said, “The Indian National Congress stands for Independence and a democratic state. It has proposed that the Constitution of free India must be framed, without outside interference, by a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise”.
The first official meeting of the Constituent Assembly of India was held on 9th December 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of the Constituent Assembly and he remained as its permanent chairman.
On the basis of the different reports, submitted by the different committees, on different aspects of the Constitution, a draft of the Constitution was prepared. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was appointed as the chairman of the Drafting Committee. The Constitution, in its final form, was passed and adopted by the assembly on 26th November 1949. However, it was implemented on 26th January 1950.
The Constitution took 2 years, 11 months and 17 days, from the first meeting of the assembly, to come in its final form. It was, originally, with 395 articles and 8 schedules. Each year we celebrate Republic Day on 26th January as on this day only our Constitution came into force.
Features of The Constitution of India
1) The Constitution of India is in the Document form. It is the lengthiest and most bulky written Constitution in the world.
2) It contains 448 articles, 12 schedules and 118 amendments.
3) It declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic nation.
4) It guarantees Indian people justice, liberty, equality and fraternity.
5) It is a mixture of rigidity and flexibility. It is neither rigid like American Constitution nor flexible like British Constitution.
6) It establishes parliamentary form of govt. both at the center and in the states.
7) It works as a Federal Constitution in normal times and as a unitary one at the time of emergency.
8) It provides a single integrated judicial system with the Supreme Court at its head. The Supreme Court of India acts as the guardian of the Constitution.
9) It contains a list of Fundamental Rights for all citizens of India.
10) It contains a set of Fundamental Duties for its citizens.
11) It introduces the Universal Adult Franchise i.e., every individual above the age of 18 has the right to vote.
12) It contains the ‘Directive Principles of State Policy’ for the guidance of the Indian governmental authorities.
13) It provides single citizenship to all the Indians irrespective of the fact that which state or territory they choose for their residence.
14) It provides for an Independent body, namely the Election Commission, to look after the machinery and functions of Election.